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eu4 land warfare combat width

This web page offers with fight mechanics. For data on the recruitment and upkeep of armies see army. For the person unit varieties see land units.

Land warfare is the deployment and maneuvering of navy belongings towards an enemy, most often this ends in fight between opposing armies. In EUIV most fight is land-based and, whereas the naval facet of conflict holds significance, shedding the land conflict is normally the primary reason behind defeat. The artwork of land warfare is subsequently of serious significance, and its complexities are mentioned right here as absolutely as potential.

Combat interface


The conclusion to a traditional land battle.

Combat is just not solely decided by mere numbers resembling modifiers and dice-rolls, however by a fancy simulation wherein items deployed into two rows of positions for both sides, permitting items to struggle the enemy items in entrance of them, the enemies at their flanks if potential (with excessive sufficient flanking vary), and transfer between completely different positions if wanted. All the whereas, the system retreats destroyed or low-morale items and deploys reinforcements and reserves as properly.

The fight system, whereas not being completely apparent or intuitive, could be seen by the fight interface which permits the participant to see which regiment is combating which, and which is transferring the place.


Terrain map. Border pixels belong to the province to their southeast.

Terrain for every province is proven in each the terrain and easy terrain mapmodes. Terrain reveals a natural-looking map, whereas easy terrain color-codes every province by its terrain sort; each have tooltips exhibiting terrain sort, fort stage, and the present winter, if any. Some terrain imposes a motion pace penalty to armies touring within the province along with a unfavourable tough terrain modifier to the attacking military, with various kinds of terrain having completely different modifiers.

Here is an inventory of the forms of terrain and the modifiers which they grant.

Terrain Supply limit.png
Supply limit
Local defensiveness.png
Local defensiveness
Movement speed.png
Movement cost
Attacker penalty
Glacial terrain Glacial +2 +25% −1
Farmlands terrain Farmlands +10 +10%
Forest terrain Forest +4 +25% −1
Hills terrain Hills +5 +10% +40% −1
Woods terrain Woods +6 +10% −1
Mountain terrain Mountain +4 +25% +50% −2
Grasslands terrain Grasslands +8
Jungle terrain Jungle +5 +50% −1
Marsh terrain Marsh +5 +30% −1
Desert terrain Desert +4 +5%
Coastal Desert terrain Coastal Desert +4
Coastline terrain Coastline +6
Drylands terrain Drylands +7
Highlands terrain Highlands +6 +10% +40% −1
Savannah terrain Savannah +6
Steppe terrain Steppes +6

Crossing penalties[edit]

A crossing penalty that reduces all cube rolls is utilized to the attacker underneath the next circumstances:

  • Crossing a river-1 to all rolls.

The presence of a river in between a province and its neighbors is indicated within the province window, by a small river icon. Mousing over this icon will present which neighboring provinces require a river to be crossed to ensure that a military to succeed in the province.

  • Crossing a strait-2 to all rolls. See straits for an inventory.
  • Amphibious touchdown-2 to all rolls.

This consists of an assault from sea or a touchdown immediately with ships at port.

For attackers that originate from a number of provinces, they are going to all obtain the crossing penalty if any one among them would usually obtain it alone. All crossing penalties are eliminated if the attacking chief has the next maneuver score than the defending chief. The test on chief maneuver score is carried out every day, so a excessive maneuver chief can nonetheless swing the tide of battle even when he joins an engagement late.

Battles in a province underneath sieg

Normally, the “attacker” is outlined as whichever facet strikes right into a given province final, whereas the “defender” is whichever one was already occupying the realm. However, if a given military is besieging a province that incorporates a fort and is attacked by troops owned by, or allied with, whoever at present controls the fort, the roles are switched: the siege military is handled because the “attackers,” and people making an attempt to interrupt the siege are the “defenders.” Attacker penalties from terrain are utilized to the siege military, whereas attacker penalties from river/strait crossings are nullified no matter any leaders’ Maneuver pips.

The participant can take this under consideration when constructing forts, in addition to when selecting which provinces to siege and which besieged provinces to prioritize sending their troops to. Also notice that this solely applies to provinces with forts.


Army composition[edit]

Main article: Army#Composition

To maximize the effectiveness of a military, a correct combination of troops is vital.

Combat width[edit]

Combat width determines what number of items can actively take part in a battle at one time. For each 1 fight width, 1 further regiment could be positioned in the back and front rows, if enough troops can be found. The base fight width is 15.[1] As navy expertise advances, a rustic’s fight width will increase, permitting them to make use of extra troopers successfully directly. All international locations apart from Native Americans begin with tech stage 2 or three, so their beginning fight width will probably be 20. The fight width utilized in a battle will probably be that of the very best worth among the many contributors. Here is a desk of fight width by navy expertise stage.

 Military expertise stage zero 2 5 6 eight 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
 Combat width 15 20 22 24 25 27 29 30 32 34 36 38 40

Unit deployment[edit]

The sport makes use of an undocumented algorithm to routinely deploy land units on the battlefield for both sides of the battle. Through statement and managed experiments, the group has advised a concept that the sport appears to comply with, depending on the tough dimension and composition of every army.

For the smaller military[edit]

  • If there’s not sufficient infantry to fill your entire first row, the sport will prioritize to:



  1. Deploy all infantry within the first row.
  2. Deploy as a lot cavalry as potential to the edges of the primary row.
  3. Deploy all artillery within the second row. If there are extra items within the second row than the primary, then it’s going to redeploy artillery to the primary row till each rows are even.
  4. If there’s nonetheless area remaining within the second row, deploy all remaining cavalry onto the second row, starting from the sting of the primary row then inwards.


  • If there’s sufficient infantry to fill your entire first row, the sport will prioritize to:




  1. Deploy all infantry in first row, aside from X[Unknown value]positions to every facet.
  2. Deploy X items of cavalry on both sides of the primary row.
  3. Deploy all artillery on the second row.
  4. If area is left on the second row, deploy all remaining infantry within the second row subsequent to the artillery, aside from Y[Unknown value]positions to every facet.
  5. Deploy all remaining cavalry within the second row, starting from the sting and going inwards.


For the larger military[edit]

For a military larger than the fight width, the sport will prioritize to:



  1. Deploy all infantry within the first row that may be positioned to assault enemy items within the first row, aside from X[Unknown value]positions to every facet.
  2. Deploy all cavalry within the first row that may be positioned to assault the enemy items within the first row.
  3. Deploy all artillery within the second row.
  4. If area is left within the second row, deploy as a lot infantry within the second row in addition to the artillery as there are positions accessible behind the infantry within the first row.
  5. If area is left within the second row, deploy as a lot cavalry within the second row in addition to the infantry as there are positions accessible behind the cavalry within the first row.

Combat sequence[edit]

When two hostile armies meet in a province a battle will begin. A battle will final till one facet is routed or annihilated.


Combat is split right into a sequence of Three-day phases. Phases alternate between Fire and Shock, with the Fire section taking place first.

Target choice[edit]

Units within the entrance row can assault any enemy unit inside their horizontal flanking vary. Normally they may solely have interaction enemies which can be straight forward of themselves, however they will generally execute flanking assault regardless if will probably be simpler at lowering the enemy’s fight potential. This usually happens if the unit is dealing with an enemy artillery regiment or a very outdated unit; on this case the unit might select to assault the flanks of a stronger enemy unit close by. Artillery are the one models that may assault from the again row, however they may solely deal 50% injury from that place.

Die roll[edit]

At the start of every section, all sides rolls a die. The result’s used to find out the morale injury and casualties inflicted to the opponents every day within the three-day-phase.

The result’s computed as following:

  • Die roll (): Is a random quantity between Zero-9, rolled for every complete facet in the beginning of every section (not every day).
  • Leader ability (): The chief ability for that section (Fire or Shock Pips).
  • Attacking unit assault pips (): The assault pips for the attacking unit for the present section, or Morale pips if computing morale injury. Note all models assault throughout each phase—here “attack” does not consult with which military is attacking.
  • Defending unit protection pips: The corresponding protection pips for the defending unit.
  • Terrain modifiers (): Harsh terrain might give a penalty to the assaults of the attacking military (on this case “attack” refers back to the attacking facet).


Casualties attributable to every unit throughout every day are computed as follows:

  • Base casualties (): Base casualties are decided by the die outcome in line with the next formulation:
  • Attacking unit power (): If the attacking unit has lower than its most of 1000 males, injury can be decreased proportionally.
  • Attacking unit modifier (): Determined by unit kind and army expertise degree and. See Technology#Cumulative mil tech effects to army.
  • Attacking unit Combat Ability (): Any Combat Ability bonuses the attacking unit has.
  • Attacking unit Discipline (): The Discipline of the attacking unit. Note that Discipline does additionally improve Military Tactics, so it will increase protection not directly.
  • Defending unit Tactics (): The Tactics of the defending unit.

There are a number of distinctive nationwide concepts which modify the quantity of injury inflicted and obtained in each the hearth and shock phases.

Ideas that improve fireplace injury dealt:

Land fire damage.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Date idea 4: Dragon Corps
  • Dutch idea 7: Platoon Fire
  • Jaunpuri idea 1: Purbias
  • Hatakeyama idea 7: Sakai-shu
  • Isshiki idea 5: Inadome Gunnery
  • Münster idea 6: Bommen Berend
  • Oda idea 5: Triple Firing
  • Shimazu idea 5: Tanegashima
  • Smolenskian idea 2: The Armories of Smolensk
  • Tirhuti idea 4: Purbias
  • Utsunomiya idea 2: Legacy of Nasu no Yoichi
  • Beninese ambition

Ideas that increase shock damage dealt:

Shock damage.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Muscovite traditions
  • Great Yuan idea 4: Keshik and Weijun
  • Nanbu idea 6: Chosonji Temple
  • Timurid idea 3: Unleash the Tiger

Ideas that reduce fire damage taken:

Fire damage received.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Hanoverian idea 7: King’s Legion
  • Russian idea 7: Broaden the curriculum of the Cadet Corps

Ideas that reduce shock damage taken:

Shock damage received.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Ando idea 1: March of Akita
  • Rassid idea 5: Mountain Strongholds
  • Ayyubid traditions
  • Dithmarscher traditions
  • Manipur traditions
  • Orissan traditions
  • Sistani traditions
  • Yi traditions
  • Assamese idea 3: River Warfare
  • Baluch idea 2: Hani and Sheh Mureed
  • Hausan idea 5: Sarkin Yaki
  • Irish idea 1: Irish Endurance
  • Kanem Bornuan idea 5: Fixed Military Camps
  • Lur idea 1: Kingdom in the Zagros Mountains
  • Butua ambition
  • Bohemian idea 3: Wagenburg

Morale injury[edit]

  • 6 base casualties interprets to dealing 1% of the attacking unit’s most morale as morale injury. Note that the modifiers could also be completely different. Units additionally use their morale pips, however the pips added by the final nonetheless use shock and fireplace pips through the shock and fireplace phases respectively.
  • Attacking unit most morale (): Note that that is the utmost morale of the attacking unit, not the present morale.
  • After current observations and a fight tooltip[2], it seems that the tech degree multiplier to shock and fireplace injury impacts morale injury as effectively.
  • There is a further contribution that additionally impacts models which can be deployed, however not actively taking part in fight

Combat statistics[edit]

Military ways[edit]

Military ways reduces the quantity of injury a rustic’s troops absorb fight. Military ways is elevated by military technology. It can be multiplied by self-discipline.

 Military expertise degree Zero four 6 7 9 12 15 19 21 23 24 30 32
 Military ways Zero.5 Zero.75 1.Zero 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.Zero 2.25 2.5 2.75 Three.Zero Three.25 Three.5


Dots offensive.png Dots defensive.png

Each army unit has offensive and defensive stats in three classes: fireplace, shock, and morale. Offensive stats are represented by yellow pips, and defensive stats by inexperienced pips. During every fight section, every unit will use its offensive pips to extend injury dealt, and its defensive pips to mitigate injury obtained.[3]

This implies that offensive pips are beneficial if the participant fields a bigger military than their opponent, and vice-versa for defensive pips. This is as a result of a bigger military with larger fight width can have a bigger floor space of assault. If, say, the enemy has a military with 10 infantry and 10 artillery, and the participant solely has 10 infantry. The participant will undergo considerably fewer casualties with defensive fireplace pips, as a result of it should cut back injury from each infantry and artillery fireplace. Conversely, if the participant has a bigger military, they’d need larger offensive pips on their infantry and artillery as a result of they’ve 2 attacking regiments for each defending enemy regiment.

The beneficial pre-artillery composition with no regard to price, consists of excessive proportions of cavalry and a excessive shock pip Leader, as tier 1 cavalry has 1 shock and Zero fireplace modifier, and tier 1 infantry has Zero.35 fireplace and Zero.5 shock modifier. Combined with a shock Leader, the participant will inflict considerably extra injury through the shock section. This additionally implies that defensive shock pips are beneficial early sport to defend the participant’s military from the enemy’s shock injury.

After army expertise degree 7 , the mixed fireplace pips of tier 2 infantry and tier 1 artillery stability fireplace and shock pips, for each Nomadic and Civilized nations. If the participant plans on recruiting an quantity of artillery models equal to the size of the present fight width, a fireplace pip Leader is now beneficial.

Flanking range[edit]

Flanking vary determines the horizontal vary during which a unit might make a flanking assault. The base flanking vary is 1 for infantry, and a pair of for cavalry and artillery. There are army applied sciences which improve the flanking vary of models as the sport progresses. Below is a desk with stated army expertise ranges and the way a lot they improve flanking vary.

Military tech.png Military technology level 0 10 18 23 28 30
Icon maneuver.png Improved flanking range 0 +25% +50% +100% +125% +150%
Flanking range for Infantry.png infantry 1 1 1 2 2 2
Flanking range for Cavalry.png cavalry 2 2 3 4 4 5
Flanking range for Artillery.png artillery 2 2 3 4 4 5

A unit that has 75% or extra of its troop power left will struggle at 100% flanking vary. If they’re in between 50 and 75% of their power, they may struggle at 75% flanking vary. When between 25 and 50% power they may struggle at 50% of their flanking vary.

Unit strength 1000–750 749–500 499–250 249–0
Flanking range 100% −25% −50% −75%

Several concepts give elevated cavalry flanking vary:The last vary is at all times rounded right down to the closest integer.

Cavalry flanking ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Albanian idea 4: Hit and Run
  • Lan Na idea 6: Elephant Charge
  • Mossi idea 2: Cavalry Raids
  • Najdi idea 5: Arabian Horsemanship
  • Kazani ambition
  • Arabian idea 2: Arabian Horses


Morale is a crucial consider combating battles. Each day of fight a unit will take a Morale hit of Zero.01 or Zero.02 no matter injury taken from an enemy regiment. If it’s taking casualties from an enemy, extra morale injury can be inflicted. Once a military’s general Morale worth has been decreased to zero the military will try and retreat. Retreat can’t occur till each a fireplace and a shock section have accomplished, so a military that has its morale decreased to Zero earlier than that time can be destroyed. This destruction is called a stackwipe.

A unit that has its morale drop under Zero.50 is flagged as disorganized, which is indicated by a small flame subsequent to its morale bar on the map and interface. A disorganized military is unable to begin transferring till its morale has recovered above Zero.50. Newly educated regiments at low land unit upkeep will usually fall under this threshold.

If a military loses a battle whereas having low sufficient morale to be disorganized, they are going to be pressured to retreat to a managed province (owned, allied in struggle, or occupied by participant or allies). This province will be very far-off from the place the battle befell. They will prioritize to retreat to a province with excessive growth, a fort, and no adjoining enemies. While retreating, it can’t be engaged in fight or managed till it reaches the safer province (or in excessive circumstances if it recovers to 100% morale earlier than reaching the vacation spot). The military additionally strikes barely sooner, and can get better morale at a standard price through the retreat. If there are not any obtainable managed provinces to retreat to inside a wide variety, the military will shattered retreat to at least one province away. The military can then be instantly re-engaged, usually with very low to even no morale, if a month-to-month tick has not but accomplished. This will be devastating as an offensive tactic, however may additionally have an effect on the participant as effectively.

A managed retreat is manually ordering a military to retreat from battle after the preliminary fireplace and shock phases, and whereas it nonetheless has larger than Zero.50 common morale. This permits the participant to regulate the vacation spot of the shattered retreat. If the morale of a military is lower than Zero.50 the participant can’t management the vacation spot. If a number of armies have converged right into a battle, it’s doable that some armies can have sufficient morale for a managed retreat, whereas others might not (usually the preliminary stack within the battle).

Winning a battle provides the successful armies 50% of their most morale and retreating from a battle will cut back the opposite allied armies’ morale relative to the portion of troops leaving the engagement).

After a battle is fought, a military should spend a while with out combating for its morale to get better. The regular morale restoration on the first of each month can’t happen whereas in fight.

  • A shattered military will get an additional morale bonus as soon as it stops retreating
  • Morale will not be gained whereas forced marching


The following modifiers contribute to the utmost morale of a nation’s military:

  • Army Maintenance: Ranging from Zero.51 at minimal upkeep to the outlined maximumat most upkeep.
  • Ideas and insurance policies:
Morale of armies.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Expand]Policies
  • Researching military technology:
    • Military technology (0): +2.0
    • Military technology (3): +0.5 (cumulative +2.5)
    • Military technology (4): +0.5 (cumulative +3.0)
    • Military technology (15): +1.0 (cumulative +4.0)
    • Military technology (26): +1.0 (cumulative +5.0)
    • Military technology (30): +1.0 (cumulative +6.0)

Various National bonuses:

  • Prestige: +10% at 100 Prestige, -10% at -100 Prestige
  • Power Projection: +10% at 100 Power Projection
  • Army reformer advisor: +10%
  • Army tradition: +25% at 100 tradition
  • Being the Defender of the Faith: +5%
  • Piety (Muslim only): +10% at 100 Piety


  • Shia: +5%
  • Protestant Church aspect “Saints accept Prayers”: +5%
  • Reformed “War” focus (requires Wealth of Nations.png Wealth of Nations DLC) +10%
  • Vajrayana: +5%
  • Shinto: +10%
  • Sikh: +10%
  • Inti with “Expanded Mitma Policy”: +10%
  • Nahuatl: +10%
  • Tengri with either Shia, Nahuatl or Sikh as syncretic faiths: +5%


  • Noble republic): +10%
  • Revolutionary Empire: +10%
  • Daimyo: +10%
  • Merchant Republic with “Aristocrats” Faction in power: +5%
  • Republican Dictatorship: +10%
  • Revolutionary Republic: +10%
  • Ambrosian Republic: +5%
  • Peasants Republic: +5%

Morale restoration[edit]

Every month, a regiment recovers 15% of its most morale. The following contributes to a nation’s morale restoration pace.

  • Regiment is in residence territory: +5%
  • Army custom: +10% at 100 custom
  • Various occasions, choices, and modifiers
  • Armies that win battles will achieve a big increase to morale, to forestall conditions the place a military is stack wiped attributable to successful a narrowly fought battle after which instantly being attacked. The quantity of morale regained is dependent upon the power of the enemy military defeated relative to their very own power.
  • Certain concepts and insurance policies as follows
Recover army morale speed.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Quality-Administrative: The Liquor Act
  • Armenian traditions
  • Fulani traditions
  • Hungarian traditions
  • Ryazan traditions
  • Pskovian idea 2: Legacy of Daumantas
  • Fully Offensive
  • Persian ambition
  • Expansion-Defensive: Local Army Organization
  • Humanist-Defensive: The Preparation Act
  • Religious-Quantity: Field priests and Soldier’s prayer books

Cavalry to infantry ratio[edit]

Armies exceeding their nation’s ratio of cavalry to infantry obtain the “insufficient support” penalty which applies a  −25% army ways to these armies till their ratio has been restored to regular. This ratio threshold is checked each day even throughout battles, and is predicated on the precise headcount of particular person troopers as a substitute of regiments. Since infantry tends to take extra casualties than cavalry, it’s advisable to take no less than a bit extra infantry than the ratio would counsel.

The base  cavalry to infantry ratio is 50%. This is additional modified by the next:

Cavalry to infantry ratio.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Polish idea 4: Winged Hussars
  • +25% Has a Government steppe horde.png Steppe Horde government
  • +25% Is Tengri Tengri (with no syncretic faith)
  • +20% Has Ab cavalry armies.png Cavalry Armies ability (an Age of Discovery.png Age of Discovery only ability)
  • +10% Is Sunni Islam Sunni
  • +10% A loyal Cossacks.png Cossacks estate (max value)


Forts are used to guard a nation from invading armies.

Fort degree and garrison[edit]

The following modifiers have an effect on fort degree:

  • Capital province: +1  fort degree for the  capital province
  • Fort buildings: +2  fort degree per constructing degree.

Each fort degree will increase the garrison of the province by 1000. Maximum garrison measurement can be influenced by the next concepts and insurance policies:

Garrison size.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Desmondian traditions
  • Isshiki traditions
  • Quantity idea 6: Conscripted Garrisons
  • Ming idea 1: Nine Garrisons of The Great Wall
  • Toki idea 4: Strategic Castles
  • Betsimisaraka idea 1: People of the Coast
  • Divine idea 5: Onward Christian Soldiers
  • Garhwali idea 2: Himalayan Kingdom
  • Italian idea 4: Trace Italienne
  • Kangra idea 4: Control of the Hill Forts
  • Slovak idea 4: Land of Castles
  • Innovative-Quantity: The Garrison System

Garrison recovers monthly at a base rate of 5% plus 1% per base manpower of the province. The rate is also increased by the following ideas and policies:

National garrison growth.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Ito traditions
  • Luxembourg traditions
  • Pueblo traditions
  • Toki traditions
  • Austrian idea 2: Military Frontier
  • Divine idea 5: Onward Christian Soldiers
  • Influence-Quantity: Guerilla Warfare

Fort maintenance


Each constructing degree of fort prices  1 ducat per thirty days. Forts will be mothballed by the nation that controls them; mothballing will cut back the fort upkeep by half however take away fort degree and the present garrison from the town. A fort can’t be mothballed or de-mothballed whereas the town is beneath siege. The garrison will get better at a standard price after mothballing is cancelled. Capital cities at all times have fort degree no less than 1, which stacks with any fort constructing within the province; this free fort degree doesn’t prolong a zone of management, doesn’t price upkeep, and can’t be mothballed. A fort constructing in a capital province will be mothballed as regular, however the free fort will stay.

Mothballed or not, fort upkeep will be decreased by following modifiers:

The Age of Absolutism Protecting Forts potential give  −100% Fort upkeep modifier if they’re on a border with a rival.The Monastic Order authorities additionally provides  −20% Fort upkeep modifier.

Zone of management[edit]

Main article: Zone of control

Unmothballed fort buildings (not counting the free fort degree within the capital) present a zone of management. A zone of management restricts the motion of enemy armies by way of the province with the fort, and provinces instantly adjoining to it.


When hostile troops enter a province and cease transferring, a siege/occupation will start. To progress, the attacker requires a minimal of 3000 males per 1000 garrison. If the province has no garrison (whether or not as a result of it has no fort or the fort’s garrison is empty), 1000 males is sufficient and occupation is assured inside a month. Any unit varieties can be utilized for sieging, however for sieging a fortified province, solely infantry can be utilized in an assault, and artillery speeds the siege up (see under). Progress in a siege won’t ever lower so long as attackers are constantly current; nonetheless, if all attackers depart the province, it should immediately reset.

Besieging armies will at all times take no less than 1% base  attrition, even when the province is unfortified. This rule solely applies to enemy-owned provinces, nonetheless – when besieging pleasant provinces to retake them from the enemy, this rule is ignored.

A besieging military at all times rely because the attacker and can obtain the province penalty and, relying on the way in which they entered the province, a further crossing penalty when a battle takes place.


Available solely with the Art of War DLC enabled.

The garrison will be ordered to make a sortie to struggle the hostile military, at the price of 10 army energy. (The  ‘Sortie from siege’ button is proven on the siege display screen.) If the garrison military, which consists solely of infantry, loses the struggle the province and fort will grow to be occupied. This can be utilized to win a battle during which each side are evenly matched.


A siege progresses in phases. Each section has a base size of 30 days and is modified by:

  • Fort protection: +1% per defender’s 1%  fort protection and  province defensiveness
  • Siege potential: −1% per attacker’s 1%  Siege Ability
  • Tactics distinction: 6.25% per Zero.25  army ways distinction to each side. E.G. If the participant’s ways is Zero.5 larger than the enemy, the participant’s siege can be 12.5% sooner and the enemy’s siege can be 12.5% slower. Only the bottom ways worth counts, bonuses from self-discipline haven’t any impact on section time.

Siege potential is influenced by the next concepts and insurance policies:

Siege ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Offensive idea 5: Engineer Corps
  • Beninese idea 2: Isiatua
  • Dutch idea 6: Army Sappers
  • Otomo idea 7: Kunikuzushi
  • Smolenskian idea 7: Tsar Mortars
  • Luxembourg ambition
  • Innovative-Offensive: Modern Siege Weapons
  • Quality-Religious: The Military Zeal Act

“Sieges per year” is computed on the default section size of 30 days.

Various Modifiers:

  • Icon war exhaustion.png War exhaustion: −1% per point
  • Army tradition.png Army Tradition: +5% at 100
  • Spy network construction.png Spy network: +20% at 100 (only with Mare Nostrum.png Mare Nostrum enabled)
  • Tengri Tengri with Coptic.png Coptic syncretic faith: +10% (only with The Cossacks.png The Cossacks enabled)
  • Hinduism Hindu with Hindu Deity Shakti Shakti as divinity: +5% (only with Wealth of Nations.png Wealth of Nations enabled)
  • Army professionalism.png Army professionalism: +20% at 100 (only with Cradle of Civilization.png Cradle of Civilization enabled)

Fort defense is influenced by the following ideas and policies:

Fort defense.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Expand]Policies

Various Modifiers:

  • Hinduism Hindu with Vishnu.png Vishnu as divinity: +20% (only with Wealth of Nations.png Wealth of Nations enabled)
  • Norse.png Norse with Norse Deity Tor Tor as divinity: +10% (only with El Dorado.png El Dorado enabled or a save converted from Crusader Kings II)
  • Being pious Being pious as a Muslim (displayed as “Mysticism”): +20% from 100 Mysticism
  • Coptic.png Coptic: +10%
  • Lucky nation: +10%
  • Certain events can temporarily increase siege ability or fort defense.

The mean number of phases to finish a siege for a particular starting bonus is as follows:

Starting bonus −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 No fort
Starting success % −100.00% −92.86% −85.71% −78.57% −71.43% −64.29% −57.14% −50.00% −42.86% −35.71% −28.57% −21.43% −14.29% −7.14% 0.00% 7.14% 14.29% 21.43% 28.57% 35.71% 100%
Mean phases 43.18 30.51 25.24 21.44 17.42 14.75 12.65 10.87 9.41 8.20 7.24 6.48 5.78 5.13 4.52 3.86 3.27 2.82 2.46 2.17 1
Sieges per year 0.28 0.40 0.48 0.57 0.70 0.82 0.96 1.12 1.29 1.48 1.68 1.88 2.10 2.37 2.69 3.15 3.72 4.32 4.95 5.60 12

“Sieges per year” is computed at the default phase length of 30 days.

Dice roll[edit]

At the top of every siege section, a die (1 to 14) is rolled. The following modifiers are then utilized:

  • Siege standing. The most essential modifier. As the siege goes on, this bonus will improve from its beginning worth of Zero relying on earlier cube rolls. The most begins at 12 for a Castle or capital fort and is elevated by 1 for every constructing degree above a Castle, as much as a most of 15 for a Fortress.
  • Leader siege. If the attacking military has a frontrunner, the chief’s siege ability (+Zero–6) is added as a bonus.
  • Artillery. Adding artillery to a siege will add a 1 to five bonus (with the  ‘Napoleonic Warfare’ potential additional  +Three Artillery bonus vs fort bonus).
    • The bonus is the same as the entire variety of artillery regiments divided by (fort constructing degree + 1), as listed within the desk under
    • A single regiment of artillery will at all times give no less than a +1 bonus, no matter fort degree.
    • Each 1000 artillery troopers rely as 1 artillery. e. g. having 10 regiments with 100 artillery every is similar as 1 regiment with 1000
Fort building level Bonus +1 Bonus +2 Bonus +3 Bonus +4 Bonus +5 Bonus +6 Bonus +7 Bonus +8
Capital without fort 1 reg. 2 reg. 3 reg. 4 reg. 5 reg. 6 reg. 7 reg. 8 reg.
Castle (Fort level 2) 1 reg. 4 reg. 6 reg. 8 reg. 10 reg. 12 reg. 14 reg. 16 reg.
Bastion (Fort level 4) 1 reg. 6 reg. 9 reg. 12 reg. 15 reg. 18 reg. 21 reg. 24 reg.
Star fort (Fort level 6) 1 reg. 8 reg. 12 reg. 16 reg. 20 reg. 24 reg. 28 reg. 32 reg.
Fortress (Fort level 8) 1 reg. 10 reg. 15 reg. 20 reg. 25 reg. 30 reg. 35 reg. 40 reg.
  • Blockade. If the province is coastal and never utterly blockaded, a −2 penalty is utilized, or −1 if the attacker is the rightful proprietor of the province. Partial blockades (something lower than 100% for the province in query) haven’t any impact on sieges. Note that the blockading fleet would not need to be owned by the identical nation because the sieging military, and even part of the identical struggle to assist in a siege.
  • Fort Level. The defender’s Fort Level is utilized as a penalty.
    • Obsolete Fort: If the attacker’s expertise permits the constructing of extra superior forts, they achieve bonus to siege outdated forts. e. g. If attacker can construct Star Forts (constructing degree Three) and is sieging a Castle (constructing degree 1), they achieve a +2 bonus to cube rolls.
    • Insufficient Garrison: Having lower than half of the utmost garrison provides the attacker a +1 bonus. If the fort has no garrison in any way (i.e., if the fort has been mothballed throughout this month), then the province is handled as unfortified and the siege will routinely succeed.
  • Walls Breached. Each time the partitions are breached, the breach standing worth will improve by 1, to a most of +Three. If this worth is no less than +1, then the fort may also be assaulted (see under).

The highest doable beginning bonus is +17: a capital fort (−1), out of date by Three fort ranges (+Three), with an inadequate garrison (+1), with a 6-siege normal (+6) and no less than eight regiments of artillery (+eight). The worst doable beginning bonus is −11, for a degree eight fort in a capital (−9) with no blockade (−2).


The die roll might end in a rise of the siege standing, which improves the outcomes of future siege phases. Maximum siege standing values goes up with the attacker’s most fort constructing degree. (12/13/14/15 for fort constructing degree 1/2/Three/four). Maximum breach standing is at all times Three.

  • If the unmodified roll is 1, a Disease Outbreak occurs—the attacking military loses 5% of its troops, and the siege doesn’t progress.
  • If a breach happens, ignore all outcomes on the desk under aside from “Surrender”. If the fort doesn’t give up, add 1 to the breach standing and a pair of to the siege standing. A breach happens if:

Or the fortress is beneath an artillery barrage (see under)

  • Then lookup the modified die roll on the desk under.


Roll Result Effect Garrison losses
4 or less Status Quo
5 – 11 Supplies Shortage +1 siege status −1% garrison
12 – 13 Food Shortage +2 siege status −3% garrison
14 – 15 Water Shortage +3 siege status −5% garrison
16 – 19 Defenders Desert +2 siege status −10% garrison
20 or more Surrender Siege successful

The attacker wants no less than a web +6 bonus to have an opportunity of ending the siege.

Artillery barrage[edit]

Available solely with the Mandate of Heaven DLC enabled.

The choice to conduct an artillery barrage turns into obtainable when a siege has no less than one full artillery regiment per fort degree. This prices  50 army energy and creates Three breaches within the partitions. In complete, these add +Three everlasting siege standing. Rolling a pure breach continues to be doable and can have an effect on the siege standing however is not going to add one other breach.


The attacker might select to assault the garrison with their infantry if the partitions have been breached no less than as soon as. This can lead to a speedy conclusion of the siege at the price of 5army energy, and normally prices a lot of lives. The attacker loses roughly 1.5 instances as many troops as defender do. Only infantry can assault. If all infantry models of the attacker are killed earlier than the defenders are defeated, the remaining cavalry and artillery will proceed the siege usually. Only  males will be a part of an assault per day.

Mechanics of a military[edit]

Main article: Army


An exiled military may be recognized by a black flag connected to its unit icon. It cannot struggle, siege provinces or discover, and it will not raise fog of struggle even within the province it is in. However, it could possibly traverse any territory (aside from wasteland) without having navy entry. It nonetheless suffers attrition and its regiments can nonetheless transfer between armies, although regiments cannot be blended between exiled and non-exiled armies.

An military will turn out to be exiled underneath the next circumstances:

  • When a struggle ends, any military nonetheless in territory it does not have peacetime entry to is exiled. This prevents it from being completely caught in a spot it could possibly’t get out of, in addition to stopping a number of exploits.
  • When a struggle begins, any military in a impartial or hostile province that it solely had entry to by means of a navy entry settlement is exiled. This prevents troops from being positioned outdoors their nation’s territory in preparation for struggle. An military in uncolonized land or the territory of a topic or ally will not be exiled, even when the ally is not referred to as into the struggle.

It will cease being exiled when it both:

  • enters a province that the military’s nation or one in every of their topics management or personal
    • This consists of house provinces occupied by an enemy
  • boards a transport ship that strikes right into a sea zone or is at the moment in a single.


Every province has a loot bar. This is the quantity of gold accessible to be looted within the province and is set by its improvement stage: a province will achieve 1 gold for each enhance of 1 improvement stage. The participant can loot provinces they occupy or these which they’re sieging, however troops should be current to take action. The quantity of loot taken is dependent upon the quantity and kind of troops within the province. A full power infantry/cavalry/artillery regiment loots zero.1/zero.three/zero.05 ducats per months.[4] When a province’s loot bar is empty no extra loot may be taken from that province. A province will solely start to recuperate two years after the final profitable looting, at a charge of 10% every month.

Looting is the principle explanation for  devastation, which tremendously reduces the proprietor’s manufacturing earnings and manpower, in addition to reducing motion pace, provide limits and institutionunfold. Even giant nations may be delivered to their knees if their provinces are persistently looted throughout a protracted struggle.

Various concepts enhance  looting pace; this bonus will increase the quantity of  ducats looted every month by the said quantity (and thus decreases the time taken to completely loot a province)

Looting speed.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses [Collapse]Policies
  • Ashanti traditions
  • Baluch traditions
  • Interlacustrine traditions
  • Manipur traditions
  • Zaporozhian traditions
  • West African traditions
  • Anatolian idea 3: Akîncî Cavalry
  • Berber idea 5: Tuareg Cavalry
  • Chickasaw idea 5: Slave Raids
  • Shan idea 5: Raiders

Attach to military[edit]

This motion attaches the participant’s military to a pleasant military, inflicting their military to journey and struggle alongside the pleasant unit with out additional enter from the participant. The military may be indifferent at any time besides in battle. An connected military can’t board transports. Attaching items to an AI military will change its conduct, making it bolder and extra prepared to actively have interaction enemies.

 Attack natives[edit]

See additionally: Colonization#Natives

The native inhabitants of a colony or uncolonized province may be eradicated utilizing the assault natives navy motion. A local military equal in dimension to the native native inhabitants (rounded to the closest thousand) will spawn instantly and should be defeated in battle to filter out the native inhabitants. This motion prices  navy energy proportional to the native inhabitants,  aggressiveness, and  ferocity, and can completely cut back the potential worth of the province from the native assimilation bonus. The elimination of all natives in a province will forestall any future raids on the native colony or any passing armies.

Scorched earth[edit]

An military in an owned and managed province might scorch the earth for  5 navy energy, so long as it has not already been scorched. This will increase  devastation within the province by 5 and offers the province modifier “Scorched Earth”, lasting for 60 months with the next results:[5]

Hostile movement speed −50% Local hostile movement speed

The devastation itself has the following effects, decaying as devastation decays as usual:

Local goods produced modifier −100% Local goods produced modifier
Supply limit modifier −50% Supply limit modifier
Local institution spread.png −100% Institution spread
Local development cost +10% Local development cost
Local manpower modifier.png −100% Manpower modifier
Local sailors modifier.png −100% Sailors modifier
Hostile movement speed −25% Local hostile movement speed
Movement speed.png −25% Local friendly movement speed


Scorching the earth may be helpful when the participant’s military is just too weak navy to fend off attackers and their provinces are prone to be occupied. It will increase attrition (hurting the enemy’s manpower), and makes the provinces much less worthwhile to the attacker whereas they’re occupying them. The participant will lose earnings within the meantime, but when they had been going to lose management of them anyway it could possibly be a good suggestion to make them much less worthwhile for the enemy.

Hunt rebels

Clicking the hunt rebels icon in a particular military panel will set the military to mechanically journey to and struggle insurgent armies that seem in its environment. The military will return to its earlier place after the rebels are dispatched. Armies which might be ordered to maneuver will cease searching rebels. An military is not going to hunt insurgent armies which might be bigger than it.

Forced march[edit]

Forced march makes a military transfer 50% quicker, however prices 2  navy energy for every province the military marches by means of. Forced march is offered at administrative technology 15. Armies which might be compelled marching don’t recuperate morale. During Age of Revolutions it’s potential to allow Improved Force March means, which reduces  navy energy price to zero (requires  Mandate of Heaven).


  1. Jump up See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: BASE_COMBAT_WIDTH = 15.0
  2. Jump up “During the Shock phase and after the dice roll and other modifiers have been added together, the unit makes an attack on an enemy unit. The Shock Modifier directly affects damage dealt to morale and number of casualties inflicted.” “During the Fire phase and after the dice roll and other modifiers have been added together, the unit makes an attack on an enemy unit. The Fire Modifier directly affects damage dealt to morale and number of casualties inflicted.”
  3. Jump up http://steamcommunity.com/app/236850/discussions/0/864976115458051703/
  4. Jump up See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua under INF_LOOTCAV_LOOT and ART_LOOT.
  5. Jump up See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Scorched Earth).
  6. http://eu4.paradoxwikis.com/Land_warfare

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